Catfish – aquarium residents
About two thousand species of catfish inhabit the fresh water of the world. This is one of the most ancient fishes of the planet, their fossil remains discovered in sediments of the late Cretaceous period (70 million years ago).
One of the main signs is the lack of scales, often replaced by bone plates. Catfish are benthic nocturnal or crepuscular lifestyle. Among them are predators, but most species prefer detritus, vegetable foods, and benthic invertebrates. Aquarists contain up to 800 kgs, not including hybrid forms. Content are suitable for normal aquarium conditions: the stiffness of 6-12°, the temperature 22 to 26 °C. the acidity is neutral, with small deviations in one direction or another. Thanks to the cutaneous respiration, or the ability to breathe atmospheric air, most catfish are not picky to oxygen mode. Hoplosternum, for example, swallow the air, he popadat in the intestine and absorbed into the bloodstream through the dense network of capillaries.
Brigandine, or kalligrafie, soma
Brigandine, or kalligrafie, soma presents nearly a hundred species, distributed in waters of South America. This is typical of omnivorous demersal fish. The body is quite high, triangular in cross section and covered with bony plates arranged in two parallel rows, resembling parquet. Little lower mouth surrounded by three pairs of antennae to help with search of food. Males are slimmer than females, they have a more strongly developed dorsal and pectoral fins. Kalligrafie get along well with any fish, just completely ignoring them. They themselves are unattractive prey for even larger predators. In aquariums with tubular catfish, constantly sifting the bottom, it is necessary to arrange efficient filtering water, the bottom covered with pebbles and plants to plant with a strong root system.
The impetus for the spawning kellytoy kgs is a drop in atmospheric pressure, the additive soft, chilled to five degrees of water and the availability of substrate for laying eggs. The incubation period of 5-8 days at a temperature of 25 °C. the Starting rules are rotifers, micro worm, brine shrimp and feed.
the tetras hiding(Corydoras)
From armored catfish in the aquarium are the most common genera corydoras (Corydoras) and hoplosternum (Hoplosternum). To the genus corydoras are Golden catfish (C. aeneus) and speckled (C. paleatus). The body of the tetras hiding short, terete. Abdomen flat, back convex. The dorsal fin of the male is pointed. Main color speckled catfish olive with metallic luster, back darker, abdomen yellow-orange. The body scattered irregular dark spots. The Golden catfish along the entire body passes wide shiny dark green stripe. In the front third above it there is a narrow Golden. Head and back dark brown. Both species have an albino form. Speckled catfish — the veteran of the aquariums. His first breeding refers to 1878.
In aquariums are widely available hybrids of the Golden and speckled catfish, and their hybrids with the tetras hiding Work, Schwartz and black-striped bond. Fish grow in length and 7 centimeters, the females are larger than males. For spawning suitable vessels a volume of 80 liters. Fish are placed in spawning group dominated by males. The water temperature just above 20 °C. The composition plays no role. The female lays eggs together in the folded ventral fins, where they are fertilized by the males, and glues them to a solid substrate. It may be a plant leaf, and the glass of the aquarium. If the spawning occurred in the General aquarium, the eggs can be carefully removed with a razor and transferred to a separate vessel for incubation. Best starter feed — Artemia.
In addition to these, in aquariums can be found at least three dozen tetras hiding.
Much less species-rich genus of hoplosternum. But one of them is, perhaps, the most famous aquarium catfish.
Tarakathum (Hoplosternum thoracatum)
Tarakathum (Hoplosternum thoracatum) from Eastern Brazil, bred in Russia in 1910. It is a fish with a long round body, up to 18 centimeters of length. The body is covered with two rows of plates, like tetras hiding. On the highest spot of the back is quite a large dorsal fin. Color catfish brown, with irregular dark spots. There’s a black color option. The males have the front rays of the pectoral fin greatly thickened and has become a powerful bone spike orange-the color of blood.
Thoracotomy build nests of foam under floating objects and leaves of plants, releasing the air bubbles by mouth, labyrinth, and from under the Gill covers. In the spawning area it is easiest to use the foam raft the size of a school notebook. For spawning, the female can produce up to 1000 eggs. Leave the male to guard the nest, but the raft with a stick to him to move the eggs in a separate vessel. It is advisable to make prevention against fungi and add in water methylene blue or acriflavine. Two days after hatching the young begin to take Artemia.
Beige hoplosternum (Hoplosternum litorale)
Beige hoplosternum (Hoplosternum litorale) with dimensions not inferior to the previous view. Colour is beige-olive, occasionally grey with a greenish tint. The body is torpedo-like. These catfish build nests in the form of a large and high caps of foam, mixed with scraps of plants.
Both hoplosternum — unpretentious, peaceful fish that love twilight. In aquariums desirable shelter out of driftwood and stones, shaded areas of the bottom. When the content of the water parameters play no role. Spawning the necessary addition of soft water and the temperature rise to 24 °C.
The family chain soms
The family chain soms are not deprived of the attention of any experienced hobbyists or beginners. A distinctive feature of these bottom fish much elongated or flattened body, covered with multi-faceted lamellae and well-developed oral sucker with tubercles and protuberances for scraping algal formations. Males are larger, brighter and slimmer than females. In adulthood on the head they have numerous appendages resembling the roots of plants, — tentaculi. In the female they are considerably weaker. The basic diet of suckermouth catfishes is a vegetable, but they do not refuse from bloodworms, Tubifex, fillet of sea fish feed and sinking.
The eggs are deposited in ceramic or glass tubes. During the whole time of incubation, 6-10 days, while the male sits in the tube, covering the eggs with her body. If the spawning occurred in the General aquarium, the tube together with the male and eggs are transferred into a separate container, just close the ends by hand. When the fry will swim, remove the male and feed the fry brine shrimp, feed or algal paste.
Ancistrus (Ancistrus dolichopterus)
Ancistrus (Ancistrus dolichopterus) — from the waters of Brazil. Flat body painted in dark colors with bright spots. Abdomen light. The big dorsal fin resembles a box. Fish grow up in good conditions up to 14 cm they Float awkwardly and reluctantly. Most of the time, stuck to the glass of the aquarium or the leaves of plants and in algae scraping. Are activated in the dark and falling atmospheric pressure. Ancistrus quite fit the conditions of the General aquarium, other inhabitants whom they do not pay the slightest attention.
The female lays 50-100 sticky oblong bright orange berries, resembling small berries of barberry. The water in the spawning and the rearing tank needs slightly acidic, pH=6,0—6,5, temperature 26 °C. the fry start to take food after 6 to 8 days after hatching.
Loricaria (Rineloricaria sp. “Red”)
Loricaria (Rineloricaria sp. “Red”) — one of a numerous family of fish, the most widespread under the name “red loricaria”. Body elongated, stretched, thin. The length of an adult fish is 12 cm Color red, of various shades. The male is slimmer, breast-fins are of the brush fibers. Loricaria — absolutely peaceful fish. Lead a frugal lifestyle, often hiding so that to find them in the aquarium is not possible. Take any food from the bottom. Spawning is seasonal in the winter. It occurs as ancistrus. Suitable tube diameter of about 30 mm. the fry Floated like scraps of thread length 7 mm. They are very sensitive to water pollution with organic matter. In the rearing tank binding active carbon filter and a full daily replacement of the fresh water, the same composition and temperature. Suitable water-settled water passes through the filter. The fry grow quickly and soon cease to react badly to the pollution.
When installing filters in aquariums with mail catfish, and especially their juveniles, it is necessary to prevent the ingress of fish into the design. They tend to find cracks and openings and get into them. Once in the filter, the fish usually die.
Sturisoma (Sturisoma panamense)
Sturisoma (Sturisoma panamense) — catfish with a very thin and long body. Snout acute, pectoral and dorsal fins large, in the form of an acute triangle. Grows to 30 cm, being almost vegetarian. Fastidious aft — need algae tablets, lettuce and even cucumbers. Can not tolerate pollution. Caviar lays in the tube.
Brocade pterygoplichthys (Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps)
Brocade pterygoplichthys (Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps). Luxurious catfish from the river Orinoco. On the light body evenly scattered black or dark brown spots — brocade. The dorsal fin is large and high, in the shape of the sail. Mouth large, strong suction Cup. Swims poorly and reluctantly. Eats fouling and scrapes wooden driftwood that you want him to provide. But don’t give up the bloodworms. The hardness of water varies widely, the temperature from 23 to 30 °C.
“Brocade catfish” in recent years entered the great fashion, but is often a problem for beginners. On sale usually fry size 5-7 cm when Purchasing catfish, often don’t know what he might grow to 30-35 cm In a small aquarium pterygoplichthys becomes a “bull in a China shop”, and in the large, slow-moving larger fish, such as discus, trying to cling to them.